Adhesion GPCR Latrophilin 3 regulates synaptic function of cone photoreceptors in a trans-synaptic manner

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Nov 9;118(45):e2106694118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2106694118.


Cone photoreceptors mediate daylight vision in vertebrates. Changes in neurotransmitter release at cone synapses encode visual information and is subject to precise control by negative feedback from enigmatic horizontal cells. However, the mechanisms that orchestrate this modulation are poorly understood due to a virtually unknown landscape of molecular players. Here, we report a molecular player operating selectively at cone synapses that modulates effects of horizontal cells on synaptic release. Using an unbiased proteomic screen, we identified an adhesion GPCR Latrophilin3 (LPHN3) in horizontal cell dendrites that engages in transsynaptic control of cones. We detected and characterized a prominent splice isoform of LPHN3 that excludes a element with inhibitory influence on transsynaptic interactions. A gain-of-function mouse model specifically routing LPHN3 splicing to this isoform but not knockout of LPHN3 diminished CaV1.4 calcium channel activity profoundly disrupted synaptic release by cones and resulted in synaptic transmission deficits. These findings offer molecular insight into horizontal cell modulation on cone synaptic function and more broadly demonstrate the importance of alternative splicing in adhesion GPCRs for their physiological function.

Keywords: adhesion GPCR; horizontal cells; retina; synapses; vision.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alternative Splicing*
  • Animals
  • Calcium Channels / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Proteome
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Peptide / genetics
  • Receptors, Peptide / metabolism*
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / metabolism*
  • Synapses / metabolism*


  • Calcium Channels
  • LPHN3 protein, mouse
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Proteome
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Receptors, Peptide