A New Generation of Vaccines in the Age of Immunotherapy

Curr Oncol Rep. 2021 Nov 4;23(12):137. doi: 10.1007/s11912-021-01130-x.


Purpose of review: Cancer vaccines are one of the most extensively studied immunotherapy type in solid tumors. Despite favorable presuppositions, so far, the use of cancer vaccines has been associated with disappointing results. However, a new generation of vaccines has been developed, promising to revolutionize the immunotherapy field.

Recent findings: In this review, we aim to highlight the advances in cancer vaccines and the remaining hurdles to overcome. Cancer vaccination has experienced tremendous progress in the last decade, with myriad promising developments. Future efforts should focus on optimization of target identification, streamlining of most appropriate vaccination strategies, and adjuvant development, as well as predictive biomarker identification. Cautious optimism is warranted in the face of early successes seen in recent clinical trials for oncolytic vaccines. If an approach were to prove successful, it could revolutionize cancer therapy the way ICIs did in the previous decade.

Keywords: Immunotherapy; Lung cancer; NSCLC; Vaccines.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology*
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Neoplasms / therapy


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Cancer Vaccines