SARS-CoV-2 in children with cancer or after haematopoietic stem cell transplant: An analysis of 131 patients

Eur J Cancer. 2021 Dec;159:78-86. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2021.09.027. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Abstract

Purpose: There are limited data on SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in children with cancer or after haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We describe the severity and outcomes of SARS-COV-2 in these patients and identify factors associated with severe disease.

Methods: This was a multinational, observational study of children (aged <19 years) with cancer or HSCT and SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. COVID-19 was classified as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe or critical (≥1 organ support). Exact polytomous regression was used to determine the relationship between clinical variables and disease severity.

Results: One hundred and thirty-one patients with COVID-19 across 10 countries were identified (median age 8 years). Seventy-eight (60%) had leukaemia/lymphoma, 48 (37%) had solid tumour and five had primary immunodeficiency and HSCT. Fever (71%), cough (47%) and coryza (29%) were the most frequent symptoms. The median duration of detectable virus was 16 days (range, 1-79 days). Forty-nine patients (37%) were hospitalised for COVID-19 symptoms, and 15 (11%) required intensive care unit-level care. Chemotherapy was delayed/modified in 35% of patients. COVID-19 was asymptomatic in 32% of patients, mild in 47%, moderate in 8%, severe in 4% and critical in 9%. In 124 patients (95%), a full recovery was documented, and four (3%) died due to COVID-19. Any comorbidity (odds ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-5.21), any coinfection (1.74; 95% CI 1.03-3.03) and severe baseline neutropenia (1.82; 95% CI 1.13-3.09) were independently and significantly associated with increasing disease severity.

Conclusion: Although most children with cancer had asymptomatic/mild disease, 13% had severe COVID-19 and 3% died. Comorbidity, coinfection and neutropenia may increase the risk of severe disease. Our data may help management decisions in this vulnerable population.

Keywords: COVID-19; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Child; Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; SARS-CoV-2.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • COVID-19 / diagnosis
  • COVID-19 / epidemiology*
  • COVID-19 / mortality
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Coinfection
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Neoplasms / mortality
  • Neutropenia / epidemiology
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Time Factors