Melasma is a hypermelanotic skin disorder characterized by dark brown macules of symmetrical sizes and shapes that develop over time. Apart from the multiple etiological factors for melasma, such as hormonal imbalances, thyroid dysfunction, drugs, and contraceptive pills, a new and significant cause has been discovered: the effect of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is the result of disequilibrium between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in the cells. It is a key element that can cause skin hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation. The physiological significance of reactive oxygen species and its function in skin health are addressed in this study. The development process and pathophysiology of reactive oxygen species with melasma disorder are also highlighted and the advantages of integrating antioxidants in clinical and experimental environments are discussed.
Keywords: DNA damage.; Melasma; lipid peroxidation; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; skin hyperpigmentation.
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