Comparison of Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Contemporary U.S. Practice With ISCHEMIA Trial Population

JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2021 Nov 8;14(21):2344-2349. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2021.08.047.


Objectives: The study sought to assess the proportion of patients in modern U.S. interventional practice that fulfilled criteria for enrollment in the ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches) trial.

Background: The ISCHEMIA trial, which enrolled patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD), showed that revascularization improved angina symptoms with little effect on death or myocardial infarction.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry (v5.0), including 1,662 hospitals, was performed. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for SIHD in routine clinical practice meeting ISCHEMIA trial inclusion criteria and those that did not were evaluated.

Results: During the study period, 388,212 patients underwent PCI for SIHD, comprising 41.88% of all patients undergoing PCI during the study period. Of these, 125,302 (32.28%; 13.52% of all patients undergoing PCI) met criteria for enrollment in the ISCHEMIA trial. Among SIHD patients that did not meet criteria, 71,852 (18.51%) had SIHD with high-risk features (35.2% left main disease, 43.7% left ventricular systolic dysfunction, 16.8% end-stage renal disease), 67,159 (17.3%) had SIHD with negative or low-risk functional testing, and 123,899 (31.92%) either had no stress testing or did not have ischemic burden reported. At the median hospital, 32.1% (interquartile range: 23.5%-40.6%) of SIHD patients met criteria for enrollment in the ISCHEMIA trial, with these patients experiencing lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality rate than comparator groups who met exclusion criteria for the trial (0.11%) (P < 0.01 for all comparisons).

Conclusions: Among contemporary U.S. patients undergoing PCI for SIHD, 32.28% clearly met enrollment criteria for the ISCHEMIA trial. There was significant variation among individual centers in the proportion of SIHD patients meeting criteria for the ISCHEMIA trial.

Keywords: ISCHEMIA trial; PCI; SIHD; outcomes; variation.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Ischemia
  • Myocardial Ischemia* / diagnostic imaging
  • Myocardial Ischemia* / therapy
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention*
  • Treatment Outcome