Optimal Management of Patients with Advanced or Metastatic Cholangiocarcinoma: An Evidence-Based Review

Cancer Manag Res. 2021 Oct 27:13:8085-8098. doi: 10.2147/CMAR.S276104. eCollection 2021.


Cholangiocarcinomas are rare tumors originating at any point along the biliary tree. These tumors often pose significant challenges for diagnosis and treatment, and often carry a poor prognosis. However, in recent years, studies have identified significant molecular heterogeneity with up to 50% of tumors having detectable mutations, leading to the guideline recommendations for molecular testing as part of the diagnostic workup for these tumors. In addition, better classification of these tumors and understanding of their biology has led to new drugs being approved for treatment of this resistant tumor. This manuscript will provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic approach, molecular classification, and treatment options for patients with advanced cholangiocarcinomas.

Keywords: chemotherapy; cholangiocarcinoma; detectable mutations; molecular; targeted therapy.

Publication types

  • Review