Development and assessment of an efficient pediatric affect and cooperation scale

J Clin Anesth. 2022 Feb;76:110569. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2021.110569. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Abstract

Study objective: HRAD± was developed to quickly evaluate pediatric preprocedural affect and cooperativity during mask induction of anesthesia and peripheral intravenous (PIV) placement. HRAD± represents: Happy, Relaxed, Anxious, Distressed, with a yes/no answer to cooperativity. The primary aim of this study was to compare HRAD± to previously published scales.

Design: We conducted an observational study.

Setting: Videos of pediatric patients were collected in the perioperative environment.

Patients: Twenty-four children, twenty-one pediatric anesthesiologists and twenty pediatric perioperative providers were included.

Interventions: To assess the reliability of HRAD±, standard patient videos were created. Children underwent mask induction or PIV placement, and these interventions were video recorded. Mask induction and PIV placement videos were rated by pediatric anesthesiologists and perioperative non-physician providers respectively using HRAD±.

Measurements: Two trained researchers provided the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS), Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD), and Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC) scores, and we calculated correlations to HRAD±, inter-rater reliability, and intra-rater reliability.

Main results: HRAD± scores strongly correlated with mYPAS (r = 0.846, p < 0.0001) and OSBD scores (r = 0.723, p < 0.0001). Cooperativity scores correlated strongly with ICC scores in the mask induction group (r = -0.715, p < 0.0001) and in the PIV group (r = -0.869, p < 0.0001). HRAD± inter-rater reliability for mask induction was 0.414 (p < 0.0001) and for PIV assessment was 0.378 (p < 0.0001). Inter-rater reliability for cooperativity on mask induction was 0.797 (p < 0.0001) and PIV assessment was 0.683 (p < 0.0001). Intra-rater reliability for mask induction was 0.675 and PIV assessments was 0.678. Intra-rater reliability for cooperativity for mask induction was 0.894 and for PIV assessments was 0.765.

Conclusions: HRAD± is an efficient and reliable scale that serves as a practical alternative for measuring pediatric affect during mask induction and PIV placement. The results demonstrate strong correlation with commonly utilized yet more complex affect scales.

Keywords: Anesthesia; Anxiety; Behavior; Child; Procedure; Validation studies.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia, General
  • Anxiety*
  • Child
  • Child Behavior*
  • Emotions
  • Humans
  • Reproducibility of Results