Comprehensive Review of Uterine Fibroids: Developmental Origin, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

Endocr Rev. 2022 Jul 13;43(4):678-719. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnab039.


Uterine fibroids are benign monoclonal neoplasms of the myometrium, representing the most common tumors in women worldwide. To date, no long-term or noninvasive treatment option exists for hormone-dependent uterine fibroids, due to the limited knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and development of uterine fibroids. This paper comprehensively summarizes the recent research advances on uterine fibroids, focusing on risk factors, development origin, pathogenetic mechanisms, and treatment options. Additionally, we describe the current treatment interventions for uterine fibroids. Finally, future perspectives on uterine fibroids studies are summarized. Deeper mechanistic insights into tumor etiology and the complexity of uterine fibroids can contribute to the progress of newer targeted therapies.

Keywords: developmental origin; epigenetics pathways; future directions; genetic instability; novel treatment; reprogramming; uterine fibroids.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leiomyoma* / etiology
  • Leiomyoma* / therapy
  • Myometrium / pathology
  • Risk Factors
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / etiology
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / therapy