Multiomics analysis of tumor mutational burden across cancer types

Comput Struct Biotechnol J. 2021 Oct 12;19:5637-5646. doi: 10.1016/j.csbj.2021.10.013. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Whether tumor mutational burden (TMB) is related to improved survival outcomes or the promotion of immunotherapy in various malignant tumors remains controversial, and we lack a comprehensive understanding of TMB across cancers. Based on the data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we conducted a multiomics analysis of TMB across 21 cancer types to identify characteristics related to TMB and determine the mechanism as it relates to prognosis, gene expression, gene mutation and signaling pathways. In our study, TMB was found to have a significant relationship with prognosis for 21 tumors, and the relationship was different in different tumors. TMB may also be related to different outcomes for patients with different tumor subtypes. TMB was confirmed to be correlated with clinical information, such as age and sex. Mutations in GATA3 and MAP3K1 in beast invasive carcinoma (BRCA), TCF7L2 in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), NFE2L2 in esophageal carcinoma (ESCA), CIC and IDH1 in brain lower grade glioma (LGG), CDH1 in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD), and TP53 in uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) were demonstrated to be correlated with lower TMB. Moreover, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) according to different TMB levels in 21 cancers. We also investigated the correlation between enrichment of signaling pathways, immune cell infiltration and TMB. In conclusion, we identified multiomic characteristics related to the TMB in 21 tumors, providing support for a comprehensive understanding of the role of TMB in different tumors.

Keywords: Differential expression; Immunology; Molecular alterations; Signaling pathway; Survival; Tumor mutational burden (TMB).