Niazimicin: A thiocarbamate glycoside from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds with a novel neuroprotective activity

J Food Biochem. 2021 Dec;45(12):e13992. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.13992. Epub 2021 Nov 7.


Moringa oleifera (MO) known as the miracle tree is a famous nutritional source in many countries. In this study, the neuroprotective activity of MO seeds was investigated. Fractions of the 70% ethanol seed extract of MO were injected at a dose of 250 mg kg-1 day-1 to albino rats for 15 days, after-which induction of dementia was done using 100 mg/kg AlCl3 over 30 days. Results revealed that all fractions ameliorated the effects of AlCl3 where methylene chloride and ethyl acetate fractions, containing the major bioactive compound niazimicin (NZ), showed the best activities. Biological investigations proved NZ to be a highly potent neuroprotective drug lead as a first report, by causing a decrease in the levels of malondialdehyde, cholinesterase, nitric oxide (NO) and amyloid β by 47%, 34%, 53% and 59%, respectively, and increasing glutathione levels by 54%. Molecular docking studies suggested NZ neuroprotective effects to be mediated by inhibition of caspase-3 and inducible nitric oxide synthase enzymes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The current findings present the neuroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera seeds consumed as a food supplement and in daily diet. In addition, niazimicin is a promising lead for the development of novel agents against Alzheimer's disease as seen by the reported results.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera; docking; neuroprotective; niazimicin; seeds.

MeSH terms

  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Animals
  • Glycosides / pharmacology
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Moringa oleifera*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Thiocarbamates


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Glycosides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Thiocarbamates