Oxidative/nitrative stress that results from the unbalance of the overproduction/clearance of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/NOS), originated from a variety of endo- and/or exo-genous sources, can have detrimental effects on DNA and is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. An excellent marker of oxidative DNA lesions is 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) while of nitrative stress the enzyme NOS2 (Nitric oxide synthase 2). Under massive oxidative stress, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1) enzyme activity, responsible for restoration of DNA damage, is augmented, DNA repair enzymes are recruited, and cell survival/or death is ensued through PARP-1 activation, which is correlated positively with neurodegenerative diseases. In this biochemical study the levels of PARP-1, 8-oxo-dG, and NOS2, Aβ1-42, and p-tau in their sera determined using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Patients diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment participated in MICOIL clinical trial, were daily administered with 50 ml Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) for one year. All MCI patients' biomarkers that had consumed EVOO were tantamount to those of healthy participants, contrary to MCI patients who were not administered. EVOO administration in MCI patients resulted in the restoration of DNA damage and of the well-established "hallmarks" AD biomarkers, thanks probably to its antioxidant properties exhibiting a therapeutic potentiality against AD. Molecular docking simulations of the EVOO constituents on the crystal structure of PARP-1 and NOS-2 target enzymes were also employed, to study in silico the ability of the compounds to bind to these enzymes and explain the observed in vitro activity. In silico analysis has proved the binding of EVOO constituents on PARP-1and NOS-2 enzymes and their interaction with crucial amino acids of the active sites. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03362996. MICOIL GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03362996.
Keywords: 8-oxo-dG; AD; DNA damage; Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO); In silico molecular docking; Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI); Nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2); PARP-1.
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