The effect of vitamin D, magnesium and zinc supplements on interferon signaling pathways and their relationship to control SARS-CoV-2 infection

Clin Mol Allergy. 2021 Nov 8;19(1):21. doi: 10.1186/s12948-021-00161-w.


The concern of today's communities is to find a way to prevent or treat COVID-19 and reduce its symptoms in the patients. However, the genetic mutations and more resistant strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerge; the designed vaccines and adjuvant therapies would potentially control the symptoms and severity of COVID-19. The most important complication of this viral infection is acute respiratory distress syndrome, which occurs due to the infiltration of leukocytes into the alveoli and the raised cytokine storm. Interferons, as a cytokine family in the host, play an important role in the immune-related antiviral defense and have been considered in the treatment protocols of COVID-19. In addition, it has been indicated that some nutrients, including vitamin D, magnesium and zinc are essential in the modulation of the immune system and interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. Several recent studies have investigated the treatment effect of vitamin D on COVID-19 and reported the association between optimal levels of this vitamin and reduced disease risk. In the present study, the synergistic action of vitamin D, magnesium and zinc in IFN signaling is discussed as a treatment option for COVID-19 involvement.

Keywords: COVID-19; Interferon; Magnesium; Vitamin D; Zinc.

Publication types

  • Review