Prognostic value of depressed cardiac index after STEMI: a phase-contrast magnetic resonance study

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2022 Jan 12;11(1):53-61. doi: 10.1093/ehjacc/zuab098.


Aims: An invasively measured cardiac index (CI) of ≤2.2 L/min/m2 is one of the strongest prognostic indicators after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), however, knowledge is mainly based on invasive evaluations performed in the pre-stent era. Velocity-encoded phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance (PC-CMR) allows non-invasive determination of CI.

Methods and results: In this prospective study, CMR was performed in 406 stable and contemporarily revascularized patients a median of 3 days after STEMI. Forward stroke volume was assessed at the level of the ascending aorta by PC-CMR. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) were determined by cine CMR. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for heart failure. Median CI was 2.52 L/min/m2 and 27% of patients had ≤2.2 L/min/m2. Median LVEF was 53% and median GLS was -12.2%. During a median follow-up of 14.2 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 13.6-14.7] months, 41 patients (10.1%) experienced a MACE. A depressed CI was significantly associated with MACE after adjustment for LVEF, GLS, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score, and infarct size [hazard ratio = 3.15 (95% CI 1.53-6.47); P = 0.002] and led to significant discrimination improvement [net reclassification improvement 0.61 (95% CI 0.25-0.97); P < 0.001].

Conclusions: A CI of 2.2 L/min/m2 or less as measured by PC-CMR was present in 27% of clinically stable patients after STEMI and strongly and independently predicted medium-term MACE. The prognostic value of a depressed CI was superior and incremental to LVEF, GLS, TIMI risk score, and infarct size.

Keywords: Cardiac magnetic resonance; Phase contrast; Prognosis; ST-elevation myocardial infarction; Cardiac index.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction* / diagnosis
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction* / surgery
  • Stroke Volume
  • Ventricular Function, Left