Beneficial Effects of Apremilast on Genital Ulcers, Skin Lesions, and Arthritis in Patients With Behçet's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mod Rheumatol. 2021 Nov 10;roab098. doi: 10.1093/mr/roab098. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to determine the clinical efficacy of apremilast for oral ulcers, extra-oral manifestations, and overall disease activity in patients with Behçet's disease (BD).

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science Core Collection. Studies assessing the treatment effects of apremilast in BD were included. The odds ratios (ORs) of being symptom free for individual manifestations and mean difference (MD) of Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF) scores were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at 12 and 24 weeks using a random-model meta-analysis.

Results: Of 259 screened articles, eight were included. After 12 weeks of apremilast treatment the OR of symptom-free was as followings: oral ulcers, 45.76 (95% CI, 13.23-158.31); genital ulcers, 4.56 (95% CI, 2.47-8.44); erythema nodosum, 3.59 (95% CI, 1.11-11.61); pseudofolliculitis, 2.81 (95% CI, 1.29-6.15); and arthritis, 3.55 (95% CI, 1.71-7.40). Furthermore, BDCAF scores at 12 weeks were significantly reduced (MD=-1.38; -1.78 to -0.99). However, the proportion of oral-ulcer free patients increased at 24 weeks (OR=14.88; 4.81 to 46.07).

Conclusion: The currently accumulated data indicates an improvement in mucocutaneous and articular symptoms by short-term apremilast treatment in patients with BD.

Keywords: Behçet’s Disease Current Activity Form; Behçet’s disease; apremilast; meta-analysis; oral ulcer.