Risk of hospitalization and death for healthcare workers with COVID-19 in nine European countries, January 2020-January 2021

J Hosp Infect. 2022 Jan;119:170-174. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2021.10.015. Epub 2021 Nov 6.


This article presents and compares coronavirus disease 2019 attack rates for infection, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death in healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-HCWs in nine European countries from 31st January 2020 to 13th January 2021. Adjusted attack rate ratios in HCWs (compared with non-HCWs) were 3.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-4.0] for infection, 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.7) for hospitalization, 1.9 (95% CI 1.1-3.2) for ICU admission and 0.9 (95% CI 0.4-2.0) for death. Among hospitalized cases, the case-fatality ratio was 1.8% in HCWs and 8.2% in non-HCWs. Differences may be due to better/earlier access to treatment, differential underascertainment and the healthy worker effect.

Keywords: COVID-19; European Union/European Economic Area; Healthcare workers; Mortality; Public health surveillance.

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Health Personnel
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units
  • SARS-CoV-2