Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protective effects of rutin and kolaviron against busulfan-induced testicular injuries in rats

Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2022 Apr;68(2):151-161. doi: 10.1080/19396368.2021.1989727. Epub 2021 Nov 9.


There are few treatment options, including the use of natural phenolics-based combination therapy for mitigating male infertility conditions associated with chemotherapy. Busulfan is an anti-cancer drug that leads to testicular problems in humans. Here, we studied the effect of co-treatment of rutin and kolaviron against busulfan-induced testis damage. Young adult male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected busulfan (4 mg/kg b.w), and then orally administered rutin (30 mg/kg b.w), and kolaviron (50 mg/kg b.w) alone and combined for 60 days. Results revealed that rutin and kolaviron alone or in combination reversed busulfan-induced increase in oxidative stress along with sperm quality of treated animals. However, kolaviron and rutin separately improved the concentrations of MDA and GSH and sperm quality more than when they were combined. Similarly, rutin and kolaviron separately or in combination preserved spermatogenesis and relieved busulfan-induced increase in nitric oxide concentration, myeloperoxidase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. Co-supplementation with kolaviron but not rutin nor when rutin was combined with kolaviron also improved the testicular level of tumor necrosis-alpha. Finally, the histological features in the testes caused by busulfan were reversed by rutin, whereas treatment with kolaviron alone or in combination with rutin partially protected the testis from busulfan-induced injury as demonstrated by the appearance of few germ cells, damaged tubules, loss of round spermatids and defoliation of the seminiferous epithelium. Thus, the combined treatment regimen of rutin and kolaviron sparingly prevented busulfan-induced testicular injuries in rats.Abbreviations: CAT: Catalase; GSH: Glutathione; 3β-HSD: 3β- hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase; MDA: Malondialdehyde; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis-alpha; BUS: Busulfan; RUT: Rutin; KV: Kolaviron; TBARS: Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; MPO: Myeloperoxidase; ELISA: Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay; NAD: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (oxidized); ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species.

Keywords: Busulfan; inflammation; kolaviron; oxidative damage; rutin; testis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / metabolism
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antioxidants* / metabolism
  • Antioxidants* / pharmacology
  • Busulfan / toxicity
  • Flavonoids
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione / pharmacology
  • Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • Male
  • Necrosis / metabolism
  • Necrosis / pathology
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Peroxidase / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Rutin* / pharmacology
  • Rutin* / therapeutic use
  • Testis


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Flavonoids
  • Rutin
  • Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
  • Peroxidase
  • Busulfan
  • Glutathione
  • kolaviron