Daily Predictors of ART Adherence Among Young Men Living with HIV Who Have Sex with Men: A Longitudinal Daily Diary Study

AIDS Behav. 2021 Nov 9. doi: 10.1007/s10461-021-03523-2. Online ahead of print.


Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for limiting HIV disease progression among young sexual minority men living with HIV. Daily diaries allow for a detailed examination of how fluctuations in psychosocial factors are associated with adherence over time. Across three cities in the United States, this study collected 60 days of quantitative data from 44 young men (between 16 and 24 years of age) living with HIV who have sex with men. Lagged transition models explored the associations of mood, stress, social support, substance use, and condomless intercourse with daily ART adherence. Baseline levels of illicit substance use and condomless intercourse, and a higher proportion of days with stress or marijuana use, were associated with lower ART adherence. Lapses in adherence predicted non-adherence the following day. Findings suggest prospective data collection may identify different predictors of adherence compared to retrospective recall. Lapse-management strategies are needed to improve adherence following a missed dose.

Keywords: Adherence; Adolescents; Daily diaries; HIV/AIDS; Young men who have sex with men.