Cardiac rehabilitation in heart failure: Indications for exercise training based on heart failure phenotype

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2022 Jan-Feb:70:16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2021.10.003. Epub 2021 Oct 29.


Exercise intolerance with dyspnea and fatigue is pervasive amongst individuals with heart failure (HF) due to both central and peripheral mechanisms. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a cornerstone therapy for numerous cardiovascular disease (CVD) processes, and it's use in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has shown significant benefit in improved mortality and quality of life (QoL). Less is known about the benefit of CR in the setting of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and optimal exercise therapy (ET) may vary based on underlying disease phenotype. Here we offer review of existing data for ET in both HFrEF and HFpEF with proposed exercise treatment modalities based on underlying comorbidities and variable phenotypes.

Keywords: Exercise training; Heart failure.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Rehabilitation*
  • Exercise
  • Heart Failure* / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Phenotype
  • Quality of Life
  • Stroke Volume