Several non-mental diseases seem to be associated with an increased risk of ADHD and ADHD seems to be associated with increased risk for non-mental diseases. The underlying trajectories leading to such brain-body co-occurrences are often unclear - are there direct causal relationships from one disorder to the other, or does the sharing of genetic and/or environmental risk factors lead to their occurring together more frequently or both? Our goal with this narrative review was to provide a conceptual synthesis of the associations between ADHD and non-mental disease across the lifespan. We discuss potential shared pathologic mechanisms, genetic background and treatments in co-occurring diseases. For those co-occurrences for which published studies with sufficient sample sizes exist, meta-analyses have been published by others and we discuss those in detail. We conclude that non-mental diseases are common in ADHD and vice versa and add to the disease burden of the patient across the lifespan. Insufficient attention to such co-occurring conditions may result in missed diagnoses and suboptimal treatment in the affected individuals.
Keywords: Asthma; Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Diabetes mellitus type II; Elimination disorders; Epilepsy; Migraine; Non-mental disease; Obesity; Somatic disorders.
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