Predominance of SARS-CoV-2 P.1 (Gamma) lineage inducing the recent COVID-19 wave in southern Brazil and the finding of an additional S: D614A mutation

Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Dec;96:105134. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105134. Epub 2021 Nov 9.


Recently, the highest wave of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic occurred since the beginning of the pandemic in Brazil was registered in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Southern Brazil, considering the number of cases, deaths and hospitalization per day caused by COVID-19. In this study we described which lineages were circulating in the first quarter of 2021 in Southern Brazil to better understand the viral factors involved in the health crisis caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the region, searching also for possible additional SARS-CoV-2 sequence mutations. A total of 70 positive SARS-CoV-2 samples collected between January 28th, 2021 until April 23rd, 2021, were selected to sequencing. Whole genome sequencing of 70 SARS-CoV-2 samples showed a predominance of Gamma lineage (67%, 47/70), followed by P.2 lineage (27%, 19/70) and B.1.1.28 (6%, 4/70). Two Gamma lineage consensus sequences presented a new S:D614A mutation. Newly mutations could be emerging due the quick SARS-CoV-2 spreading. Thus, the greater understanding about immune protection and variants vigilance is essential to the better management of the health SARS-CoV-2 crisis.

Keywords: B.1.1.25; COVID-19; Gamma lineage; Health crisis; P.2 lineage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • COVID-19 / epidemiology*
  • COVID-19 / virology
  • Child
  • Consensus Sequence
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation*
  • Phylogeny
  • SARS-CoV-2 / genetics*
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus / chemistry
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus / genetics
  • Whole Genome Sequencing
  • Young Adult


  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
  • spike protein, SARS-CoV-2

Supplementary concepts

  • SARS-CoV-2 variants