Green extraction optimization of triterpenoid glycoside-enriched extract from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban using response surface methodology (RSM)

Sci Rep. 2021 Nov 11;11(1):22026. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-01602-x.


Centella asiatica (L.) Urban extracts are widely used as food, drugs and cosmetics, and the main active compounds are glycosides (madecassoside and asiaticoside) and aglycones (madecassic acid and asiatic acid). Green extraction is an interesting concept that can produce safe and high-quality extracts that use less solvent, time and energy with the environmental friendly. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting a triterpenoid glycoside-enriched C. asiatica extract using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used for the experimental design and data analysis. Four-month-old C. asiatica tetraploid plants were selected as the elite raw material containing high amount of triterpenoid glycosides for the extraction experiments, and the triterpenoid content was determined by a validated HPLC method. The results demonstrated that the RSM models and equations were reliable and could predict the optimal conditions to enhance C. asiatica extract yield, glycoside and aglycone amounts. The percent of ethanol was the major factor that had a significant effect on C. asiatica yield and glycoside and aglycone content during MAE and UAE. The maximum triterpenoids content in extract; 7.332 ± 0.386% w/w madecassoside and 4.560 ± 0.153% w/w asiaticoside 0.357 ± 0.013% w/w madecassic acid and 0.209 ± 0.025% w/w asiatic acid were obtained by MAE with 80% ethanol at 100 watts for 7.5 min, whereas the optimal conditions for highest total triterpenoids extraction from dry plant was UAE with 80% ethanol, temperature 48 °C, 50 min enhanced 2.262 ± 0.046% w/w madecassoside, 1.325 ± 0.062% w/w asiaticoside, 0.082 ± 0.009% w/w madecassic acid and 0.052 ± 0.007% w/w asiatic acid as secondary outcome. Moreover, it was found that MAE and UAE consumed energy 59 and 54%, respectively, lower than that of the conventional method, maceration, in term of kilowatt-hour per gram of total triterpenoids. These optimized green conditions could be recommended for C. asiatica extraction for triterpenoid glycoside-enriched extracts production for the pharmaceutical or cosmeceutical industries and triterpenoids quantitative analysis in raw materials.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Centella / chemistry*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Glycosides / analysis
  • Glycosides / isolation & purification*
  • Microwaves
  • Plant Extracts / analysis
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification*
  • Sonication
  • Triterpenes / analysis
  • Triterpenes / isolation & purification*


  • Centella asiatica extract
  • Glycosides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Triterpenes