Clinical manifestations, associated risk factors and treatment outcomes of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA): Experiences from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan

PLoS One. 2021 Nov 12;16(11):e0259766. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0259766. eCollection 2021.


Background: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) has a wide spectrum of illnesses depending on the progression of the disease and comorbid conditions. However, there is an inadequacy of investigations regarding clinical, laboratory, risk factor and prognostic data on CPA. The current study is aimed to consider the clinical manifestations, risk factors and outcomes of CPA.

Methodology: Retrospective records of all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CPA who sought treatment at Gulab Devi Chest Hospital Lahore, Pakistan from January 2017 to December 2019 were evaluated. Data regarding demographics, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, radiographic and microbiological findings, length of hospital stay (LOS) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission was collected and analyzed to identify the factors associated with mortality. The independent factors associated with mortality were also identified by appropriate analyses.

Results: A total of 218 CPA patients were included in this study. The mean age was 45.75 ± 6.26 years. Of these, 160 (73.4%) were male, and 65 (29.8%) had diabetes. The mean LOS was 18.5 ± 10.9 days. The most common type of CPA was simple aspergilloma (56%) followed by chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) (31.2%). About one half of the patients had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and treatment response rates were low in patients with active TB. The overall mortality rate was 27.1%. ICU admission was required for 78 (35.8%) patients. Diabetes mellitus (DM), hematological malignancies and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were the common underlying conditions predicting a poor outcome. Mean LOS, hematological malignancies, consolidation and ICU admission were identified as the independent factors leading to mortality.

Conclusions: CPA had a significant association with TB in the majority of cases. Treatment response rates in cases with active TB were comparatively low. Cases with high mean LOS, hematological malignancies, consolidation, ICU admission, CKD and DM experienced poor outcomes. High mean LOS, hematological malignancies, consolidation and ICU stay were identified as independent risk factors for mortality. Future large prospective studies, involving aspergillus specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody testing, are required for a better understanding of CPA in Pakistan.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pakistan / epidemiology
  • Pulmonary Aspergillosis* / mortality
  • Pulmonary Aspergillosis* / therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Tertiary Care Centers
  • Treatment Outcome

Grant support

The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.