Normal structure and pathological features in peripheral neuropathies

J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2021 Nov;26 Suppl 2:S11-S20. doi: 10.1111/jns.12462.


Normal nerve architecture is basic to a complete understanding of nerve pathology. Here, normal components of the nerve are illustrated, including myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibres, stromal elements, and vascular components. These are relevant because the differential diagnosis of neuropathy depends on the pathological processes affecting axon, myelin, interstitial space, and blood vessels. Thus, we present a description of the general pathological characteristics for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders.

Keywords: axonal degeneration; axonal regeneration; demyelination; remyelination.

MeSH terms

  • Axons / pathology
  • Humans
  • Myelin Sheath / pathology
  • Peripheral Nerves / pathology
  • Peripheral Nervous System Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Peripheral Nervous System Diseases* / pathology