Albuminuria Pre-Emptively Identifies Cardiac Patients at Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy

J Clin Med. 2021 Oct 26;10(21):4942. doi: 10.3390/jcm10214942.


Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a complication associated with the administration of contrast media (CM). The CIN diagnosis is based on creatinine, a biomarker late and insensitive. The objective proposed was to evaluate the ability of novel biomarkers to detect patients susceptible to suffering CIN before CM administration. The study was carried out with patients undergoing cardiac catheterization involving CM. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) CIN, patients who developed this pathology; (2) control, patients who did not suffer CIN. Prior to the administration of CM, urine samples were collected to measure proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1, albumin, transferrin, t-gelsolin and GM2 ganglioside activator protein (GM2AP). The risk factors advanced age, low body mass index and low estimated glomerular filtration rate; and the urinary biomarkers albumin, transferrin and GM2AP showed significant predictive capacity. Of all of them, albuminuria demonstrated the highest diagnostic power. When a cutoff point was established for albuminuria at values still considered subclinical (10-30 µg/mg Cru), it was found that there was a high incidence of CIN (40-75%). Therefore, albuminuria could be applied as a new diagnostic tool to prevent and predict CIN with P4 medicine criteria, independently of risk factors and comorbidities.

Keywords: albuminuria; contrast media; contrast-induced nephropathy; diagnosis.