Development of cataracts is a well-known adverse effect of ionizing radiation, but little information is available on their incidence in patients after other medical procedures, such as cardiac catheterizations. The study objective was to determine the incidence of cataracts in a cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic coronary total occlusion (CTO) and its association with radiation dose. The study analyzed the incidence of cataracts during the follow-up of 126 patients who underwent chronic total coronary PCI, using Cox regression to identify predictive factors of cataract development. The study included 126 patients, 86.9% male, with a mean age of 60.5 years (range, 55.0-68.0 years). Twenty-three (18.2% n = 23) developed cataracts during a mean follow-up of 49.5 months (range 37.3-64.5 months). A higher incidence was observed in patients who received more than 5 Gy (29.0% vs. 14.7%, Hazard ratio (HR = 2.84 [1.19-6.77]). Multivariate analysis revealed a relationship between cataract development during the follow-up and a receipt of radiation dose >5 Gy (HR = 2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI 1.03-6.61]; p = 0.03), presence or history of predisposing eye disease (HR = 4.42, CI:1.57-12.40), diabetes (HR = 3.33 [1.22-9.24]), and older age, as in >57 (HR, 6.40 [1.81-22.61]). An elevated incidence of cataracts was observed in patients after PCI for CTO. The onset of cataracts is related to the radiation dose during catheterization, which is a potentially avoidable effect of which operators should be aware.
Keywords: cataracts; chronic coronary total occlusion; ionizing radiation; percutaneous coronary intervention.