Protein Palmitoylation in Bovine Ovarian Follicle

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Oct 29;22(21):11757. doi: 10.3390/ijms222111757.


Protein palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification by fatty acids (FA), mainly a palmitate (C16:0). Palmitoylation allows protein shuttling between the plasma membrane and cytosol to regulate protein stability, sorting and signaling activity and its deficiency leads to diseases. We aimed to characterize the palmitoyl-proteome of ovarian follicular cells and molecular machinery regulating protein palmitoylation within the follicle. For the first time, 84 palmitoylated proteins were identified from bovine granulosa cells (GC), cumulus cells (CC) and oocytes by acyl-biotin exchange proteomics. Of these, 32 were transmembrane proteins and 27 proteins were detected in bovine follicular fluid extracellular vesicles (ffEVs). Expression of palmitoylation and depalmitoylation enzymes as palmitoyltransferases (ZDHHCs), acylthioesterases (LYPLA1 and LYPLA2) and palmitoylthioesterases (PPT1 and PPT2) were analysed using transcriptome and proteome data in oocytes, CC and GC. By immunofluorescence, ZDHHC16, PPT1, PPT2 and LYPLA2 proteins were localized in GC, CC and oocyte. In oocyte and CC, abundance of palmitoylation-related enzymes significantly varied during oocyte maturation. These variations and the involvement of identified palmitoyl-proteins in oxidation-reduction processes, energy metabolism, protein localization, vesicle-mediated transport, response to stress, G-protein mediated and other signaling pathways suggests that protein palmitoylation may play important roles in oocyte maturation and ffEV-mediated communications within the follicle.

Keywords: ZDHHC; bovine; cumulus; follicular fluid extracellular vesicles; granulosa; oocyte; protein palmitoylation.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle / metabolism*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cumulus Cells / chemistry
  • Cumulus Cells / metabolism
  • Female
  • Granulosa Cells / chemistry
  • Granulosa Cells / metabolism
  • Lipoylation
  • Oocytes / chemistry
  • Oocytes / metabolism
  • Ovarian Follicle / chemistry
  • Ovarian Follicle / metabolism*
  • Proteins / analysis
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Proteomics


  • Proteins