Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. The natural history of DKD includes glomerular hyperfiltration, progressive albuminuria, declining estimated glomerular filtration rate, and, ultimately, kidney failure. It is known that DKD is associated with metabolic changes caused by hyperglycemia, resulting in glomerular hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Hyperglycemia is also known to cause programmed epigenetic modification. However, the detailed mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of DKD remain elusive. In this review, we discuss recent advances regarding the pathogenic mechanisms involved in DKD.
Keywords: albuminuria; diabetic kidney disease; fibrosis; glomerulosclerosis; inflammation.