Contextual Determinants of General Household Hygiene Conditions in Rural Indonesia

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Oct 21;18(21):11064. doi: 10.3390/ijerph182111064.


Household hygiene is critical to prevent pathogen transmission at the household level. Assessing household hygiene conditions and their determinants are needed to improve hygiene conditions, especially in rural and less developed areas where the housing conditions are relatively worse than they are in urban areas. This study used data from 278 household interviews and observations in rural areas in the district of East Sumba, province East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The data were analyzed using statistical methods. In general, the household hygiene conditions in the study need to be improved. The main potential sources of pathogen transmission were from the surrounding environment, i.e., non-permanent floor and garbage, and personal hygiene, i.e., handwashing facilities with water and soap were only observed in the homes of four out of ten respondents. The presence of livestock roaming freely in the house's yard was another source of contamination. Easy access to water and wealth significantly influenced the hygiene conditions. Implementing low-cost interventions, i.e., cleaning the house of garbage and animal feces and cleaning nails, should be the priority in immediate intervention, while providing easier access to water supply, especially during the dry season, could be a long-term intervention. This paper also argues that analyzing household hygiene conditions or practices should be complemented by analyzing contextual determinants of the hygiene conditions or practices, so that we can develop more precise intervention by considering the local or household context.

Keywords: Indonesia; hygiene; rural areas; sanitary inspection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Family Characteristics
  • Humans
  • Hygiene*
  • Indonesia
  • Rural Population
  • Sanitation*
  • Water Supply