Prostate Cancer Survival by Risk and Other Prognostic Factors in Mallorca, Spain

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Oct 24;18(21):11156. doi: 10.3390/ijerph182111156.


Studies about the survival of patients with prostate cancer by stage or risk of progression are scarce. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the cause-specific survival by risk in prostate cancer patients in Mallorca diagnosed in the period 2006-2011; (2) to identify the factors that explain and predict the likelihood of survival and the risk of dying from this type of cancer; and (3) to determine the distribution of prostate cancer by risk in the patients in Mallorca diagnosed in the period 2006-2011. Incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2011 were identified through the Mallorca Cancer Registry. We collected age; date and method of diagnosis; date of follow-up or death; T, N, M and stage according to the TNM 7th edition; Gleason score; prostate-specific antigen (PSA); histology according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) 3rd edition, comorbidities and treatments. We calculated risk in four categories: low, medium, high and very high. The end point of follow-up was 31 December 2014. Multiple imputation (MI) was performed to estimate cases with unknown risk. We identified 2921 cases. Five years after diagnosis, survival after MI was 89% globally, and was 100% for low-risk cases, 96% for medium risk, 93% for high risk and 69% for very-high-risk cases. Cases with histology other than adenocarcinoma, with high (and especially very high) risk, as well as with systemic, mixed and observation/unspecified treatments had worse prognoses.

Keywords: multiple imputation; prostate neoplasm; stage; survival.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Spain / epidemiology


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen