Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Thymoquinone against Different Dental Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

Molecules. 2021 Oct 26;26(21):6451. doi: 10.3390/molecules26216451.


This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Thymoquinone (TQ) on four different oral microorganisms. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC), Broth microdilution, and Well diffusion tests were used to determine the optimum antimicrobial concentrations of TQ against Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus over 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. Chlorhexidine 0.12% was selected as a positive control. The inhibitory effect of TQ on bacterial growth was most noticeable with S. salivarius, while the least affected was S. aureus. TQ's MBC and MIC for S. oralis and S. aureus were comparable 2 mg/mL and 3 mg/mL, respectively. S. salivarius was most resistant to TQ and displayed a value of 5 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. The viable count of different strains after exposure to TQ's MBC values was most noticeable with S. aureus followed by S. oralis and S. mutans, while S. salivarius was least affected. This study emphasized the promising antimicrobial effect of TQ against the four main oral microorganisms. It has a potential preventive effect against dental caries as well as other oral diseases.

Keywords: antibacterial agents; black seeds; dental caries; herbs; thymoquinone.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Benzoquinones / chemistry
  • Benzoquinones / pharmacology*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects*
  • Streptococcus mutans / drug effects*
  • Streptococcus oralis / drug effects*
  • Streptococcus salivarius / drug effects*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Benzoquinones
  • thymoquinone