Phenolic compounds present in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protective properties. UVR from sunlight, which consists of UV-B and UV-A radiations, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical formation, consequently activating proteinases and enzymes such as elastase and tyrosinase, leading to premature skin aging. The objective of this work was to extract, characterize and evaluate the antioxidant and antiaging potential of polyphenols from a black bean endemic variety. The polyphenolic extract was obtained from black beans by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with a mixture of water-ethanol as a cosolvent and conventional leaching with a mixture of water-ethanol as solvent. The polyphenolic extracts were purified and characterized, and antioxidant potential, tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory potentials were measured. The extract obtained using the SFE method using CO2 and H2O-Ethanol (50:50 v/v) as a cosolvent showed the highest total phenolic compounds yield, with 66.60 ± 7.41 mg GAE/g coat (p > 0.05) and 7.30 ± 0.64 mg C3GE/g coat (p < 0.05) of anthocyanins compared to conventional leaching. Nineteen tentative phenolic compounds were identified in leaching crude extract using ESI-QTOF. Quercetin-3-D-galactoside was identified in crude and purified extracts. The purified SFC extract showed IC50 0.05 ± 0.002 and IC50 0.21 ± 0.008 mg/mL for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. The lowest IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition was 0.143 ± 0.02 mg/mL and 0.005 ± 0.003 mg/mL of elastase inhibition for leaching purified extract. Phenolic compounds presented theoretical free energy values ranging from -5.3 to -7.8 kcal/mol for tyrosinase and -2.5 to -6.8 kcal/mol for elastase in molecular docking (in silico) studies. The results suggest that the purified extracts obtained by SFE or conventional leaching extraction could act as antioxidant and antiaging ingredients for cosmeceutical applications.
Keywords: antioxidant; black bean; elastase; phenolic compounds; supercritical fluids extraction; tyrosinase.