Performance of Concrete Mixes Containing TBM Muck as Partial Coarse Aggregate Replacements

Materials (Basel). 2021 Oct 21;14(21):6263. doi: 10.3390/ma14216263.


This study investigated the potential utilization of the TBM muck obtained from the Gold Line of the Doha Metro Project as a partial replacement of coarse aggregates in concrete mixes. First, the TBM muck particles were screened to coarse aggregate standard sizes. Then, concrete mixes were prepared using 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% TBM muck replacement of coarse aggregates. The compressive and flexural strengths were determined for all mixes at 28 and 56 days. Moreover, the results obtained were validated using EDX analysis and SEM images. A t-statistical analysis did not show a significant impact of TBM muck usage on the compressive strength results of the concrete mixes. However, another t-statistical analysis showed that TBM muck replacement of coarse aggregates had adversely affected the flexural strength results. The EDX analysis indicated the presence of Na+ ions, which can replace the Ca2+ ions in the C-S-H gel, cause discontinuities of it, and hence reduce the strength at later ages. Finally, the SEM images showed that the ettringite and carbon hydroxide (C-H) contents in the mixes with TBM muck were higher than that of the control mix, while the C-S-H gel was less in such mixes.

Keywords: EDX analysis; SEM images; TBM muck; coarse aggregates; compressive strength; flexural strength; recycling; sustainability.