Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of the Tensile Behavior of Architectured Cu-Al Composite Wires

Materials (Basel). 2021 Oct 22;14(21):6305. doi: 10.3390/ma14216305.


The present study investigates, experimentally and numerically, the tensile behavior of copper-clad aluminum composite wires. Two fiber-matrix configurations, the conventional Al-core/Cu-case and a so-called architectured wire with a continuous copper network across the cross-section, were considered. Two different fiber arrangements with 61 or 22 aluminum fibers were employed for the architectured samples. Experimentally, tensile tests on the two types of composites show that the flow stress of architectured configurations is markedly higher than that of the linear rule of mixtures' prediction. Transverse stress components and processing-induced residual stresses are then studied via numerical simulations to assess their potential effect on this enhanced strength. A set of elastic-domain and elastoplastic simulations were performed to account for the influence of Young's modulus and volume fraction of each phase on the magnitude of transverse stresses and how theses stresses contribute to the axial stress-strain behavior. Besides, residual stress fields of different magnitude with literature-based distributions expected for cold-drawn wires were defined. The findings suggest that the improved yield strength of architectured Cu-Al wires cannot be attributed to the weak transverse stresses developed during tensile testing, while there are compelling implications regarding the strengthening effect originating from the residual stress profile. Finally, the results are discussed and concluded with a focus on the role of architecture and residual stresses.

Keywords: Cu-Al composite wires; finite element analysis; wire drawing.