Nasal or noninvaisve intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) refers to well-established noninvasive respiratory support strategies combining a continuous distending pressure with intermittent pressure increases. Uncertainty remains regarding the benefits provided by the various devices and techniques used to generate NIPPV. Our included meta-analyses of trials comparing NIPPV with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants demonstrate that both primary and postextubation NIPPV are superior to CPAP to prevent respiratory failure leading to additional ventilatory support. This short-term benefit is associated with a reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but not with mortality. Benefits are greatest when ventilator-generated, synchronized NIPPV is used.
Keywords: Infant; Nasal positive pressure ventilation; Noninvasive ventilation; Premature; Respiratory distress syndrome.
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