Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Am J Cardiol. 2022 Jan 15:163:124-129. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.09.042. Epub 2021 Nov 10.


Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but studies on HIV as a risk factor for cardiac arrest in the general population are lacking. We aimed to examine the association of HIV infection with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). We used the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data to evaluate HIV infection as a predictor of OHCA in all California emergency department encounters from 2005 to 2015, adjusting for age, gender, race, income, obesity, smoking, alcohol, substance abuse, hypertension (HTN), diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), atrial fibrillation, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also determined patient characteristics modifying these associations by including interaction terms in multivariable-adjusted models. In 18,542,761 patients (mean age 47 ± 20 years, 53% women, 43,849 with HIV) followed for a median 6.8 years, 133,983 new OHCA events occurred. Incidence rates in patients with HIV were higher than in patients without HIV (1.99 vs 1.16 OHCA events per 1,000-person-years follow-up). After multivariable adjustment, HIV was associated with a 2.5-fold higher risk of OHCA (hazard ratio 2.47, 95% confidence interval 2.29 to 2.66, p <0.001). The risk of OHCA with HIV was disproportionately stronger in younger patients, women, and in those with HTN, CHF, and CKD. In this large prospective study, HIV was associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk of OHCA, with a greater vulnerability to this outcome in patients with HIV who were female or had HTN, CHF, or CKD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • California / epidemiology
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Heart Failure / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors