Neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation can increase risk for higher blood pressure or hypertension, while greater neighborhood safety and walkability may protect against hypertension. Large-scale prospective research, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, is lacking. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between neighborhood environments and blood pressure and hypertension among 3851 Hispanic/Latinos enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos San Diego, CA cohort. Addresses from Visit 1 (2008-2011) were geocoded and neighborhood characteristics were determined as part of the SOL CASAS ancillary study. Home addresses were geocoded and home areas created using 800 m circular radial buffers. Neighborhood indices socioeconomic deprivation, residential stability, and social disorder were created using Census and other publicly available data. Walkability was computed as density of intersections, retail spaces, and residences. Greenness was measured via satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Visit 1 and Visit 2 (2014-2017) clinical outcomes included systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, as well as prevalent and 6-year incident hypertension, defined as SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mmHg or antihypertensive medication use. Complex survey regression models adjusted for covariates revealed cross-sectional associations between greater walkability and lower SBP (B = -0.05; 95% CI: -0.09, -0.003). In prospective analyses, greater neighborhood social disorder was related to increasing SBP (B = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.09) and DBP (B = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.12) over time. Greater socioeconomic deprivation (OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.04) and greater social disorder (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.54) were associated with higher odds of incident hypertension. All other associations were not significant. Beyond individual-level characteristics, greater neighborhood social disorder and socioeconomic deprivation were related to adverse changes in blood pressure over 6 years among Hispanics/Latinos. Neighborhood social environment may help identify, or be an area for future intervention for, cardiovascular risk among Hispanics/Latinos.
Keywords: Blood pressure; Cohort; Environment; Hispanic/latino; Hypertension; Neighborhood; United States.
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