T helper type (Th1/Th2) responses to SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A (H1N1) virus: From cytokines produced to immune responses

Transpl Immunol. 2022 Feb:70:101495. doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2021.101495. Epub 2021 Nov 10.


Cytokines produced by T helper cells (Th cells) have essential roles in the body's defense against viruses. Type 1 T helper (Th1) cells are essential for the host defense toward intracellular pathogens while T helper type 2 (Th2) cells are considered to be critical for the helminthic parasites' elimination swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus, a disease led to an epidemic in 2009 and rapidly spread globally via human-to-human transmission. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic in 2020 and is a serious threat to the public health. Pulmonary immunopathology is the leading cause of death during influenza and SARS-CoV-2 epidemics and pandemics. Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 cause high levels of cytokines in the lung. Both inadequate levels and high levels of specific cytokines can have side effects. In this literature review article, we want to compare the Th1 and Th2 cells responses in SARS-CoV-2 and H1N1.

Keywords: Cytokines produced; H1N1; Immune responses; SARS-CoV-2; T helper type; Viral infections.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Cytokines
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype*
  • Influenza, Human* / epidemiology
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Cytokines