Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in RASopathies: Diagnosis, Clinical Characteristics, Prognostic Implications, and Management

Heart Fail Clin. 2022 Jan;18(1):19-29. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2021.07.004. Epub 2021 Oct 25.


RASopathies are multisystemic disorders caused by germline mutations in genes linked to the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Diagnosis of RASopathy can be triggered by clinical clues ("red flags") which may direct the clinician toward a specific gene test. Compared with sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in RASopathies (R-HCM) is associated with higher prevalence of congestive heart failure and shows increased prevalence and severity of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Biventricular involvement and the association with congenital heart disease, mainly pulmonary stenosis, have been commonly described in R-HCM. The aim of this review is to assess the prevalence and unique features of R-HCM and to define the available therapeutic options.

Keywords: Cardio-facio.cutaneous; Costello; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; LEOPARD; Noonan; RASopathies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / diagnosis
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / epidemiology
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / genetics
  • Genetic Testing
  • Heart Defects, Congenital*
  • Humans
  • Noonan Syndrome* / genetics
  • Prognosis