A live-imaging protocol to track cell movement in the Xenopus embryo

STAR Protoc. 2021 Nov 2;2(4):100928. doi: 10.1016/j.xpro.2021.100928. eCollection 2021 Dec 17.


Tracking individual cell movement during development is challenging, particularly in tissues subjected to major remodeling. Currently, most live imaging techniques in Xenopus are limited to tissue explants and/or to superficial cells. We describe here a protocol to track immature multiciliated cells (MCCs) moving within the inner epidermal layer of a whole embryo. In addition, we present a data processing protocol to uncouple the movements of individual cells from the coplanar drifts of the tissue in which they are embedded. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Chuyen et al. (2021).

Keywords: Cell Biology; Developmental biology; Microscopy; Model Organisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Movement / physiology*
  • Cell Tracking / methods*
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / cytology*
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Luminescent Proteins / metabolism
  • Microscopy, Video / methods*
  • Xenopus laevis


  • Luminescent Proteins