Aims: Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour (LCCSCT) is a rare testicular sex cord-stromal tumour that primarily affects young patients and is associated with Carney complex. We sought to characterise the clinicopathological features of a series of LCCSCT and evaluate the diagnostic utility of PRKAR1A immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Methods and results: The LCCSCT cohort (n = 15) had a median age of 16 years (range = 2-30 years). Four patients were known to have Carney complex. PRKAR1A IHC was performed in each case. For comparison, PRKAR1A IHC was also assessed in other sex cord-stromal tumours, including Sertoli cell tumour, not otherwise specified (SCT, NOS; n = 10), intratubular large cell hyalinising Sertoli cell tumour (n = 1) and Leydig cell tumour (n = 23). Loss of cytoplasmic PRKAR1A expression was observed in all but one LCCSCT (14 of 15; 93%). PRKAR1A expression was retained in all SCTs, NOS (10 of 10; 100%), the majority of Leydig cell tumours (22 of 23; 96%) and an intratubular large cell hyalinising Sertoli cell tumour (1 of 1; 100%). One Leydig cell tumour showed equivocal staining (multifocal weak expression).
Conclusions: Overall, PRKAR1A loss is both sensitive (93%) and highly specific (97%) for the diagnosis of LCCSCT. PRKAR1A loss may aid its diagnosis, particularly in sporadic cases and those that are the first presentation of Carney complex.
Keywords: Carney complex; PRKAR1A; Sertoli; immunohistochemistry; testis.
© 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.