Long-Term Outcomes of Pediatric Idiopathic Intermediate Uveitis

Am J Ophthalmol. 2022 May:237:41-48. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2021.11.003. Epub 2021 Nov 13.


Purpose: To describe the course of childhood-onset intermediate uveitis without associated systemic disease, and investigate determinants of outcomes.

Design: A retrospective clinical cohort study METHODS: This study was conducted in an institutional setting. A total of 125 children (221 eyes) aged 16 years and less participated. Outcomes of interest were visual acuity, severity of inflammation, and the occurrence of sight-threatening complications. Variables examined included age and clinical findings at presentation, treatment, and duration of follow-up. Multivariable analysis was undertaken to investigate potential predictors of outcomes.

Results: The median follow-up duration was 57 months. At presentation, best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/160 was recorded in 11 (4.4%) eyes and significant vitreous haze (≥2+Standardisation of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN)) in 35 (14%) eyes. Corticosteroid-sparing agents were used in 41 children (33%), with methotrexate most commonly used (27 children, 21.6%). The most frequent complications were raised intraocular pressure (n = 65; 29.4%), cataract (n = 41; 18.5%), and cystoid macular edema (n = 29; 13.1%). At the last visit, 116 (92.8%) patients achieved best-corrected vision of 20/40 or better with quiescent uveitis. The absence of the use of a steroid-sparing immunomodulatory agent was the strongest predictive factor for the development of new macular edema (odds ratio = 6.3, 95% CI = 2.3-16.9, P < .001) or glaucoma (odds ratio = 6.6, 95% CI = 2.5-17.9, P < .001) over the period of observation.

Conclusions: The visual outcomes of childhood-onset idiopathic intermediate uveitis are favorable. The frequency of sight-threatening sequelae of inflammation, which confer a lifelong risk of further visual loss, is high. The use of immunomodulatory therapy is associated with a lower risk of developing macular edema and ocular hypertension.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Glaucoma* / complications
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Macular Edema* / drug therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Uveitis* / complications
  • Uveitis* / diagnosis
  • Uveitis* / drug therapy
  • Uveitis, Intermediate* / complications
  • Uveitis, Intermediate* / diagnosis
  • Uveitis, Intermediate* / drug therapy