Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic progressive disease that usually requires polypharmacological treatment approaches. Previously we have described a series of 2-oxindole derivatives as GSK3β inhibitors with in vivo antihyperglycemic activity. α-Glucosidase is another antidiabetic target that prevents postprandial hyperglycemia and corresponding hyperinsulinemic response. Herein we report a study of 3,5-disubstituted indolin-2-one derivatives as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. These inhibitors were identified via efficient synthesis, in vitro screening, and biological evaluation. The most active compound 5f inhibits yeast α-glucosidase with IC50 of 6.78 µM and prevents postprandial hyperglycemia in rats after maltose and sucrose challenge at 5.0 mg/kg dose. Two lead glucosidase inhibitors, 5f and 5m, are also GSK3β inhibitors with submicromolar potency. Hence, structure-activity studies elucidate foundation for development of dual GSK3β/α-glucosidase inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Indolin-2-one; Oxindoles; α-Glucosidase inhibitors.
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