Dysregulated endolysosomal trafficking in cells arrested in the G1 phase of the host cell cycle impairs Salmonella vacuolar replication

Autophagy. 2022 Aug;18(8):1785-1800. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2021.1999561. Epub 2021 Nov 15.


Modulation of the host cell cycle has emerged as a common theme among the pathways regulated by bacterial pathogens, arguably to promote host cell colonization. However, in most cases the exact benefit ensuing from such interference to the infection process remains unclear. Previously, we have shown that Salmonella actively induces G2/M arrest of host cells, and that infection is severely inhibited in cells arrested in G1. In this study, we demonstrate that Salmonella vacuolar replication is inhibited in host cells blocked in G1, whereas the cytosolic replication of the closely related pathogen Shigella is not affected. Mechanistically, we show that cells arrested in G1, but not cells arrested in G2, present dysregulated endolysosomal trafficking, displaying an abnormal accumulation of vesicles positive for late endosomal and lysosomal markers. In addition, the macroautophagic/autophagic flux and degradative lysosomal function are strongly impaired. This endolysosomal trafficking dysregulation results in sustained activation of the SPI-1 type III secretion system and lack of vacuole repair by the autophagy pathway, ultimately compromising the maturation and integrity of the Salmonella-containing vacuole. As such, Salmonella is released in the host cytosol. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the modulation of the host cell cycle occurring during Salmonella infection is related to a disparity in the permissivity of cells arrested in G1 and G2/M, due to their intrinsic characteristics.Abbreviations: CDK4: cyclin dependent kinase 4; CDK6: cyclin dependent kinase 6; CDK4-CDK6i: CDK4-CDK6 inhibitor IV; cfu: colony-forming units; CHQ: chloroquine; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; EEA1: early endosome antigen 1; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; GFP: green fluorescent protein; hpi: hours post-infection; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MOI: multiplicity of infection; RAB7: RAB7, member RAS oncogene family; SCV: Salmonella-containing vacuole; SPI-1: Salmonella pathogenicity island-1; SPI-2: Salmonella pathogenicity island-2; TFEB: transcription factor EB; T3SS: type III secretion system.

Keywords: Autophagy; G1 arrest; Salmonella; Salmonella cytosolic replication; Salmonella-containing vacuole; cell cycle; endolysosomal trafficking; type III secretion system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Autophagy
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle
  • Lysosomes / metabolism
  • Salmonella / metabolism
  • Type III Secretion Systems* / metabolism
  • Vacuoles* / metabolism


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Type III Secretion Systems

Grants and funding

This work was supported by grants from the Bavarian Ministry of Sciences, Research and the Arts in the framework of the Bavarian Molecular Biosystems Research Network (BioSysNet), DFG project BR 4837/1-1 and the ERDF - European Regional Development Fund through COMPETE 2020 and Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007440, UIDB/04539/2020, IF/01105/2015).