Post-COVID syndrome symptoms, functional disability, and clinical severity phenotypes in hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals: A cross-sectional evaluation from a community COVID rehabilitation service

J Med Virol. 2022 Apr;94(4):1419-1427. doi: 10.1002/jmv.27456. Epub 2021 Nov 23.


There is currently limited information on clinical severity phenotypes of symptoms and functional disability in post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID) Syndrome (PCS). A purposive sample of 370 PCS patients from a dedicated community COVID-19 rehabilitation service was assessed using the COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Scale where each symptom or functional difficulty was scored on a 0-10 Likert scale and also compared with before infection. Phenotypes based on symptom severity were extracted to identify any noticeable patterns. The correlation between symptom severity, functional disability, and overall health was explored. The mean age was 47 years, with 237 (64%) females. The median duration of symptoms was 211 days (interquartile range 143-353). Symptoms and functional difficulties increased substantially when compared to before infection. Three distinct severity phenotypes of mild (n = 90), moderate (n = 186), and severe (n = 94) were identified where the severity of individual symptoms was of similar severity within each phenotype. Symptom scores were strongly positively correlated with functional difficulty scores (0.7, 0.6-0.7) and moderately negatively correlated with overall health (-0.4, -0.3, to -0.5). This is the first study reporting on severity phenotypes in a largely nonhospitalized PCS cohort. Severity phenotypes might help stratify patients for targeted interventions and planning of care pathways.

Keywords: C19-YRS; SARS CoV-2; long COVID; phenotypes; post-COVID-19 condition.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • COVID-19 / rehabilitation*
  • Community Health Services / methods
  • Community Health Services / organization & administration*
  • Critical Pathways / organization & administration*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype
  • SARS-CoV-2*
  • Severity of Illness Index