Predictors of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy in a long-term follow-up

Kardiol Pol. 2021;79(12):1335-1342. doi: 10.33963/KP.a2021.0159. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Abstract

Background: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is an extremely rare muscular dystrophy due to either emerinopathy (EMD) or laminopathy (LMNA). The main risk for patients is that of cardiovascular complications.

Aims: This study aimed to identify predictors of adverse clinical events in patients with EDMD in a long-term follow-up observation.

Methods: A total of 45 patients with confirmed EMD or LMNA mutation were included in the study. The relationships between clinical parameters, the overall survival rate, and risk factors for disease progression were assessed. The primary endpoint was defined as death, while the secondary endpoint comprised death, resuscitated cardiac arrest (RCA), heart transplant (HTX), stroke, end-stage heart failure (ESHF), and hospitalization due to heart failure (HF).

Results: During a median length of follow-up observation of ten years (interquartile range, 5-15), ten patients (22%) died, one suffered RCA, two had HTX, and six suffered ischemic strokes (13%). Seven patients developed ESHF, and eight were hospitalized due to HF. The secondary endpoint occurred in 16 patients (36%). LMNA mutation (hazard ratio [HR], 6.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61-22.4; P = 0.008) and higher serum N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06-1.56 per 100 pg/ml; P = 0.01) increased the risk of death. Higher tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) decreased the risk for the secondary endpoint (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.90 mm; P <0.001). NT-proBNP >257 pg/ml and TAPSE <21 mm may be assumed as the best cut-off values for the primary and secondary endpoints, respectively.

Conclusions: LMNA mutation and higher NT-proBNP concentration were associated with increased mortality in EDMD. Lower TAPSE was a predictor of a composite secondary endpoint in EDMD.

Keywords: EMD; LMNA; cardiomyopathy; heart failure; laminopathy.

MeSH terms

  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Failure*
  • Heart Transplantation*
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss* / complications
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss* / genetics
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
  • Peptide Fragments

Substances

  • Peptide Fragments
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain