Study objective: This scoping review was conducted to collate and summarize the published research literature addressing sexual and gender minority care in the emergency department (ED).
Methods: Using PRISMA-ScR criteria, an electronic search was conducted of CINAHL, Embase, Ovid Medline, and Web of Science for all studies that were published after 1995 involving sexual and gender minorities, throughout all life stages, presenting to an ED. We excluded non-US and Canadian studies and editorials. Titles and abstracts were screened, and full-text review was performed independently with 4 reviewers. Abstraction focused on study design, demographics, and outcomes, and the resulting data were analyzed using an ad hoc iterative thematic analysis.
Results: We found 972 unique articles and excluded 743 after title and abstract screening. The remaining 229 articles underwent full-text review, and 160 articles were included. Themes identified were HIV in sexual and gender minorities (n=61), population health (n=46), provider training (n=29), ED avoidance or barriers (n=23), ED use (n=21), and sexual orientation/gender identity information collection (n=9).
Conclusion: The current literature encompassing ED sexual and gender minority care cluster into 6 themes. There are considerable gaps to be addressed in optimizing culturally competent and equitable care in the ED for this population. Future research to address these gaps should include substantial patient stakeholder engagement in all aspects of the research process to ensure patient-focused outcomes congruent with sexual and gender minority values and preferences.
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