Bone changes with candidate PrEP regimens containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and/or maraviroc and/or emtricitabine in US men and women: HPTN 069/ACTG A5305

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2022 Feb 2;77(2):500-506. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkab400.


Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been associated with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD), but the bone effects of other non-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate candidate PrEP regimens are not well described.

Methods: The HPTN 069/ACTG A5305 study randomized 406 US cisgender men and transgender women, and 188 cisgender women at risk for HIV infection to one of four double-blinded regimens: (i) maraviroc; (ii) maraviroc + emtricitabine; (iii) maraviroc + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; or (iv) tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine. BMD was measured in a subset of participants at the lumbar spine (LS) and hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and 48 weeks. Percentage change in LS and hip BMD was compared between the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate- and non-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing arms by Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and multiple linear regression adjusting for sex, race and baseline BMI.

Results: At baseline (n = 307), the median age was 33 years, 56% male and 43% black. At the hip, the median percentage change in BMD at 48 weeks was -1.05% in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate arms and 0.0% in the non-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate arms (between group P = 0.001). No interaction by sex was observed. The median percentage change in LS BMD was not different between arms.

Conclusions: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing PrEP was associated with significantly greater bone loss compared with maraviroc ± emtricitabine PrEP at the hip, but not the LS. The BMD changes at the hip were similar in magnitude in men and women.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Emtricitabine / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Maraviroc / therapeutic use
  • Tenofovir / therapeutic use


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Tenofovir
  • Emtricitabine
  • Maraviroc