Noncoding RNAs: biology and applications-a Keystone Symposia report

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2021 Dec;1506(1):118-141. doi: 10.1111/nyas.14713. Epub 2021 Nov 17.


The human transcriptome contains many types of noncoding RNAs, which rival the number of protein-coding species. From long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are over 200 nucleotides long to piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) of only 20 nucleotides, noncoding RNAs play important roles in regulating transcription, epigenetic modifications, translation, and cell signaling. Roles for noncoding RNAs in disease mechanisms are also being uncovered, and several species have been identified as potential drug targets. On May 11-14, 2021, the Keystone eSymposium "Noncoding RNAs: Biology and Applications" brought together researchers working in RNA biology, structure, and technologies to accelerate both the understanding of RNA basic biology and the translation of those findings into clinical applications.

Keywords: Xist; circRNA; lncRNA; noncoding RNA; nuclear condensate; phase transition; piRNA; transcription.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Congresses as Topic / trends*
  • Drug Delivery Systems / methods
  • Drug Delivery Systems / trends
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / genetics*
  • Gene Targeting / methods
  • Gene Targeting / trends*
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs / administration & dosage
  • MicroRNAs / genetics
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / administration & dosage
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / genetics
  • RNA, Small Interfering / administration & dosage
  • RNA, Small Interfering / genetics
  • RNA, Small Untranslated / administration & dosage
  • RNA, Small Untranslated / genetics
  • RNA, Untranslated / administration & dosage*
  • RNA, Untranslated / genetics*
  • Research Report*
  • Signal Transduction / genetics


  • MicroRNAs
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • RNA, Small Untranslated
  • RNA, Untranslated