Background: The need for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients with serious infections is associated with clinical failure, emergence of resistance, and excess mortality. These poor outcomes are attributable in large part to subtherapeutic antimicrobial exposure and failure to achieve target pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) thresholds during CRRT. Cefiderocol is a novel siderophore cephalosporin with broad in vitro activity against resistant pathogens and is often used to treat critically ill patients, including those receiving CRRT, despite the lack of data to guide dosing in this population.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the PK and PD of cefiderocol during in vitro and in vivo CRRT and provide optimal dosing recommendations.
Methods: The PK and dialytic clearance of cefiderocol was evaluated via an established in vitro CRRT model across various modes, filter types, and effluent flow rates. These data were combined with in vivo PK data from nine patients receiving cefiderocol while receiving CRRT from phase III clinical trials. Optimal dosing regimens and their respective probability of target attainment (PTA) were assessed via an established population PK model with Bayesian estimation and 1000-subject Monte Carlo simulations at each effluent flow rate.
Results: The overall mean sieving/saturation coefficient during in vitro CRRT was 0.90 across all modes, filter types, effluent flow rates, and points of replacement fluid dilution tested. Adsorption was negligible at 10.9%. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that effluent flow rate is the primary driver of clearance during CRRT and can be used to calculate optimal cefiderocol doses required to match the systemic exposure observed in patients with normal renal function. Bayesian estimation of these effluent flow rate-based optimal doses in nine patients receiving CRRT from the phase III clinical trials of cefiderocol revealed comparable mean (± standard deviation) area under the concentration-time curve values as patients with normal renal function (1709 ± 539 mg·h/L vs. 1494 ± 58.4 mg·h/L; p = 0.26). Monte Carlo simulations confirmed these doses achieved >90% PTA against minimum inhibitory concentrations ≤4 mg/L at effluent flow rates from 0.5 to 5 L/h.
Conclusion: The optimal dosing regimens developed from this work have been incorporated into the prescribing information for cefiderocol, making it the first and only antimicrobial with labeled dosing for CRRT. Future clinical studies are warranted to confirm the efficacy and safety of these regimens.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.