Exploring the extraction methods for plant-based coagulants and their future approaches

Sci Total Environ. 2021 Nov 16;151668. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151668. Online ahead of print.


The application of plant-based coagulants in wastewater treatment has increasingly progressed in the coagulation-flocculation process toward green economy and cleaner production. Plant-based coagulants have a potential as essential substitutes for commercially used chemical coagulants because of their natural characteristics and biodegradability. Chemical coagulants leave residues in treated water and generated sludge, which cause harm to human health and the ecosystem. Thus, the exploration of plant-based coagulants in wastewater treatment could reduce and eliminate the potential damage of chemical coagulants and promote the alternative approach for sustainable environment. The general processing steps of the end-to-end plant-based coagulant production, which includes primary, secondary, and tertiary stages, are discussed. However, this review focuses more on the extraction process using different solutions and compares the performance of different coagulants in removal activities after effluent treatment. Discussion on the arising challenges is elaborated, and approaches for plant-based coagulant research in the near future are suggested.

Keywords: Active compounds; Coagulation–flocculation; Performance; Suspended solids; Wastewater.

Publication types

  • Review